Holocaust Timeline ( Shoa Wikia )
This site holds a detailed day by day timeline of the holocaust. It includes the Hebrew dates and sources. It also includes atrocities against Jews and blood libels, at other times and by the others at the same time, such as the communist atrocities and Arab attacks on Iraqi Jews during WWII.
WP (Wikipedia) sources lead to the documents and the actual sources.
This page is currently under construction.
Jewish Holocaust Timeline Edit
Early times Edit
Crusades and expulsions Edit
Spier, Worms and Mainz (Mets) communities demise by the crusaders חורבן קהילות שו"ם.
- Total of 12,000 Jews killed in all towns
- 3 May 1096 גזרות ד'תתנ"ו Beginning of Crusade atrocities
- 3 May 1096 ח איר תתנ"ו תקיפת טריר - Ten Jews of Terier abducted and commit suicide rather than convert
- 18 May 1096 כג איר תתנו - תקיפת ורמייזא - Worms attack begins: attacking synagogues and shops.
- 25 May 1096 רח סיון תתנו - חורבן ורמייזא - Worms massacre 800 Jews killed
- 27 May 1096 ג סיון תתנו - חורבן מגנצא Mainz - 1500 Jews killed including 6 rich men. During attack, 3 of the attackers killed by a young Jew with a knife.
- 30 May 1096 ערב חג שבועות -תקיפת קלן - Attack on Jews of Cologne. Saved in fort.
- 18 June 1096 Hebrewdate? חורבן קלן - Cologne Massacre. Jews of Keln killed.
- 15 July 1099 Crusader attack on Jerusalem. Massacre of Jerusalem Jews. documented in image
- attacks: 1147 - 2nd crusade, 1298 rindfleish,
- Bluish atrocities -
- 16 March 1190 כט אדר ד'תתקנ York massacre. 150 killed Source:1190 Massacre. Hisory of York website
- 12 June 1320 כ"ז סיון ה'פ - Shepherds Cursade גזירות הרועים reached Toulouse around 500 Jews were killed at each stop starting with Saintes, Verdun Sur Garonne, Cahor and Albi.
Source: WP:Shepherds Crusade
- 14 February 1349 hebrew? Strassburg Jews burned to death during black plague
- ?? 1349 black plague libel (attack in Mainz, 6000 Jews killed in total wp:mainz)
- Easter 1389 פסחא קמט חורבן פראג - Prague Easter massacre - 3000 Jews killed Source:Prague city line
- 4 June 1391 ר"ח תמוז קנ"א Sevilla, Spain Massacre גזירות קנ"א - killing of Jews and burning their homes. The massacres and forced conversions continued throughout June to the whole of Spain. In Valencia 250 Jews were killed. In Toledo famous Rabbi Judah Ben Harosh was murdered with his family and students. One of the converts following these atrocities - Shlomo Halevi of Burgos, Castilia, wrote a book against Judaism named Scriptus Scripturarum, and claimed the atrocities were the correct way to lead Jews to find their way-- to the true religion, Christianity. Source: He-WP גזירות קנ"א
- 1475 - Granada Jews tortured under inquisition Source: woodcut Image
- 31 July 1492 ז' באב תתנו - Spanish Expulsion גירוש ספרד, Last day for Jews of Aragon and Castilia to leave or convert. ?? killed Source:??
- Signed on March 31st and publicised on April 29th.
- 22 August 1614 hebrewdate? - plundering Jews of Frankfurt am main Source:wp
- 1648 תח ותט Kozzack Pogroms. At time claimed 100-180,000 killed in dozens of towns. Modern Israeli researchers claim 40,000-50,000 killed.
- 27 May 1648 - ו סיון תח יום א דחג שבועות בחו"ל - Khmelnitzki atrocities:
- Jews flee the villages. Towns of Lechowitz, Borislaw, Barshiwoka, Luben, Barjuflin, Pratton - attacked and Jews horribly tortured and murdered. Hebrew wp:גזירות תח ותט
- Unknown date - Pinsk Jews attacked and 30-50 Jews killed.
- 1 June 1648 כ סיון תח - חורבן נמירוב - Nemirow atrocities (Hannover claims unlikely num of 6000 Jews killed. See HebWP:תח ותט)
- 20 June 1648 - חורבן גומל - Goumle pogrom - All Jews of town killed
- 26 June 1648 - חורבן טולטשין - Toltchien pogrom - Many Jews of the town killed
- 2 May 1650 - היתר חזרה ליהדות Jewish decree - King Kazimaiez permits Jewish forced converts to return to their Jewish religion.
- ?? (1?) August 1654 Vilna Massacre - Most Jews were able to escape
- ?? October 1654 Lublin Massacre - Claimed 2000 Jews killed. Research: Several hundred only.
- ?? October 1655 - Swedish invasion - Kazimaiez Jewish Quarter of Krakow destroyed.
- 22 January 1656 - Jews are enemy: Czar Moskovy Sozerniute decree. All property to soldiers.
- ?? February 1656 - Sandomiez massacre. Cerniecki kills 600 Jews.
- Czar Alexander III in 1881 after father killed
- 14 April 1881 פסח תרמא Elizbethgrad riots
- 28 March 1891 יח אדר ב תרנא Moscow and St. Peterburg expulsion
- 5 January 1895 ט טבת תרנה Dreifus Trial משפט דרייפוס
- Date? Kishinev. Killed? - סופות בנגב
- Date? Place? Killed? Source?
Beginning of Nazi Era Edit
- 30 January 1933 - NSDAP takeover, Nazi Germany.
- 1 April 1933 - Boycott Jewish Business
- 12 March 1938 - Anschluss
- 31 March 1938 - Cologne Jewish Lawyers attacked and humiliated Source:WP History of Jews in Cologne
- 1 April 1938 - First deportation of 156 Vienna Jews to Dachau
- 9 August 1938 - Mauthausen established. First Dachau prisoners sent to build it
- 9 November 1938 טז חשון תרצט Kristalnacht
- 10 November 1938 טז חשון תרצט Cologne businesses forced to give over to Germans.
- 23 August 1939 Hebrewdate?? - Molotov Ribbentropp Pact signed
- Date? Germany annexes Czechoslovakia
- Date? Jews without papers thrown out of Czechoslovakia
- 1 September 1939 Hebrewdate?? - Germany invades Poland
Invasions and WWII Edit
- 1 September 1939 Hebrewdate? Germany invades Poland
- 7 September 1939 - Germany attacks Warsaw. Polish government flee to Romania. Jews join defending forces
- 8 September 1939 Friday - Kozniece bombed and Jewish homes hit. Source JewishGen Kozniece Yizkor pages
- Later that day 2000 Jewish refugees running to Kozniece are tortured and returned to the town church. They are forced to dig and bury alive an unknown Jew.
- 9 September 1939 Sabbath - Kozniece continued torture. Hanging of a man in place of the Rabbi is stopped after bribed and perhaps sexual assault of women. Town shul is burnt down.
- 14 September 1939 - Rosh Hashana 5700 ראש השנה ת"ש Thursday
- 14 September 1939 - Sanuk סאנוק attack - Ghetto, Judenrat and torture. Source hebWP:סאנוק with image
- 14 September 1939 - Przemysl taken by Germany, after 3 days standoff
- 15 September 1939 - Kozienice atrocities - beard cutting and humiliation. Source: Images (also: YadVashem images)
- 16 September 1939 - Dinow דינוב atrocities. Saturday. 150 Jews killed. Many burnt alive in Synagogue. Source? (WP dubeck)
- 17 September 1939 - Dubeck דובצק killings. צום גדליה Gedalya fast. 20 Hostages including the town rabbi his wife and the mayor,. The Jews are tortured while the main synagogue is burnt and the Hassidic one defiled. 11 of the Jewish hostages, early comers to the remaining Hassidic synagogue, were tortured and shot to death. Rabbi and wife killed later in Pshemishl Ghetto in 1942.
- 22 September - Yom Kippur יום כיפור ת"ש
- 27 September 1939 Warsaw, Polish capital, captured by Germany.
- Estimated 300,000 Jews in the town
- 15,000 Polish 'Inteligentzia' murdered according to list. 2 Milion Poles deported
- 28 September 1939 - סוכות ת"ש Succot
- 28 September 1939 - Dubeck atrocities - Morning of Succot holiday, After promising safety to all who come out of hiding, Germans are set to shoot the Jews. Town mayor convinced the Germans to spare the Jews lives. They have 3 hours to cross the Seine, some drown, all others robbed on both sides of the river.
- 29 September 1939 א' חוהמ"ס ת"ש- Warsaw Judenrat established
- 4 November 1939 - Warsaw Ghetto established
- Date? - Purim
- Date ? Pesach
- 9 April 1940 - Germany invades Denmark and Norway
- 17 April 1940 - Mauthausen Gusen I camp near Linz - First two huts filled.
- 10 May 1940 - Germany captures Luxembourg
- 14 May 1940 - Germany captures Holand
- 25 May 1940 - Mauthausen Gusen I camp - SachsenHausen and Dachau prisoner transports begin
- 14 June 1940 - Radom Ghetto First deportation to Auschwitz. Source: Holocaust History Archives
- 21 June 1940 - Italy invades southern France
- 22 June 1940 - Germany captures France
- 28 June 1940 - Soviets take over "northeast Romania": Bessaravia and Bukovina
- 10 July 1940 - Beginning 'Battle of Britain' air battle.
- 6 August 1940 - Baltics under Soviet rule (process began on June 14)
- 30 August 1940 - Transivania devided between Romania and Hungary
- 30 August 1940 - Antonesku rules Romania after King Carol of Romania steps down to son Michael
- 2 October 1940 ראש השנה תש"א - Rosh Hashana
- 12 October 1940 יום כיפור תש"א - Warsaw Ghetto wall -
- Warsaw Jews may only live in Ghetto. German Radio Decree
- 180,000 Jews brought into the neighborhood in addition to 200,000 already there.
- Over 4200 Jewish shops were taken over and given to Poles or Germans
- In the first year there were 43,258 deaths in the Ghetto, many from illness and malnutrition.
- Until March 1941, an extra 100,000 Jews were brought in, including Roma, Jews from Germany, and Catholics with Jewish ancestry or converts.
- 31 October 1940 - First Nazi defeat as Battle of Britain air-battle ends
- Date?? October 1940 - Italy invades Greece
- 20 November 1940 - Hungary joins Axis.
- 22 November 1940 - Romania joins Axis
- 23 November 1940 - Slovakia joins Axis
London bombed. Malta attacked. German air attacks on ships (also US owned) in Mediterranean. British attack in Ethiopia, then Eritrea (with soldiers from India). Vichy French attack Thailand. Greek dictator Metaxas dies. Mussolini meets Hitler. Atlantic convoys drowned. Rommel appointed in North Africa and begins victories. Battle of Tobruk. Source: WP 1941 timeline
- 21 January 1941 - Bucharest Massacre, Iron cross and government riots against Jews in the Romanian capital. at least 125 Jews were Killed - brutally and horrifically tortured sexually abused and murdered, At least 3 Synagogues burnt and over 1000 businesses looted. Source: WP Bucharest Pogrom
- 23 January 1941 - Charles Lindbergh proposes US neutrality pact with Hitler
- 15 February 1941 - Austrian Jews begin being deported to Ghettos in Poland (to Kielce. 5000 in total with deportation in March. later murdered in Belzec). Numbers?? Source:Holocaust Research Proj
- To be inserted in correct dates on timeline: info from hrp -
- After the Wannsee Conference, Eichmann announced to the Viennese community his general Aussiedlung ("evacuation") program:
- 3,200 Austrian Jews were deported to Riga,
- 8,500 to Minsk,
- and 6,000 to Izbica and several other places in the Lublin region. This last group was almost entirely exterminated.
- 1 March 1941 - Hitler gives expansion order for Auschwitz appoints Hoess.
- 1 March 1941 - Bulgaria joins Axis
- 6-17 April 1941 - Yugoslavia taken by Germany, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria
- 10 May 1941 - Hess captured in England. Wishes to establish treaty with Britain
- 23 May 1941 - Hitler: Arab Freedom Movement support in the Middle East
- 9-13 June 1941 - Lebanon, ANZAC Litani River offensive against French Vichy forces. Moshe Dayan loses eye. Beirut captured.
- Date? June 1941 - Greece surrenders to Bulgaria invasion
- 13-17 June 1941 - Stalin deports to Siberia 10,100 Estonians, 15,000 Latvians, 35,000 Lithuanians among them only 7000 are listed as Jews?? Source??
- 5000 Jews from Lithuania. Yeshivas go into hiding
- 14 June 1941 - US freezes all German assets
- 22 June 1941 - GERMANY INVADES RUSSIA - Barbarossa operation
Invasion into Russia Edit
- 22 June 1941 כז סיון תשא - Operation Barbarossa towards Moscow, Leningrad and Caucasus oil fields
- 22 June 1941 - the attack
- 23 June 1941 כח סיון תשא - First known German atrocity? against non-Jews German soldiers massacre 42 villagers in Ablinga, Ukraine source: WP Ablinga
- 23 June 1941 - Sokal סקוהל killing, 8 Jews shot as the Germans entered the town. More Jews suspected of communism were arrested and executed in the following days. Source: Hebrew-WP: Sokal
- 24 June 1941 שבת שלח כו סיון תש"א - Germans enter Vilnius, Lithuania. Under the Soviet rule Jews were restricted from practicing religion and many were deported to Siberia or other remote places.
- 25 June 1941 - June German Wehrmacht video 564 - Crossing border, taking Kowno (Kaunas) and into Lithuania [9:50] "Jewish commander"
- 29 June 1941 hebrewdate? - Nuremberg laws enforced on Lithuania and its capital Vilnius Source: Vilna Ghetto Chronology website
- 2 July 1941 Germans enter Rohatyn
- 5 July 1941 - Germans reach Buczacz בוטשאטש and Ukrainians plunder and murder Jews before the Army enters.
- ? July 1942 Rava Ruska Ghetto - Einzatzgruppen operation replaces and murders Judenrat lead by anti Nazi Dr. Joseph Mandel. Source: He-WP:סוקאל
- 9 July 1941 Movie: Die Deutsche Wochenschau Nr. 566 Taking Jonava. [4:19] Jews blamed for atrocities against national Lithuanians. [5:38] Crowds tearing away at Jews. [7:14] Another road in - from Bialistok to Minsk. [14:40] taking Kovna, Vilna and Kalvaria
Showing scared Jews being taken away, and synagogues filmed.
- part 2: part 2 taking Riga, [7:06] Synagogue, Jews of Jonava, Ghetto established
- ? July - ? August 1941 - Systematic public torture and murder of Lithuanian village and town Jews Source: WP Hebrew - Lithuanian Jews Holocaust according to Jager's detailed lists
- 23 July 1941 - Die Deutsche Wochenschau Nr. 568 Rudki near Lemberg towards Zwiehl and Kishinev. Riga towards Witebsk taken. South:taking the Baltic.[9:04] Lemberg Jews forced labor. Blamed for atrocities.
- ? July 1941 - Jews of Mogilev being marched with shovels
- 30 July 1941 - Die Deutsche Wochenschau Nr. 569 Kiev. [24:50] attrocities seen - blamed on Jews
- 6 August 1941 - Die Deutsche Wochenschau Nr. 570 into Smolensk and Kroatia, thousands of Jews seen marched off. Jews in forced labor, hats taken.
- ? August 1941 - Judenrat established in Buczacz בוצ'אץ
- ? August 1941 - Hitler and Mussolini meet at Brest-Litovsk fortress.
- 20 August 1941 - Die Deutsche Wochenschau Nr. 572 Uman, Kiev.
- ? Summer 1941 - Vilina Ghetto, 35,000 Jews killed rapidly.
- ? September - ? November 1941 - Systematic public torture and murder of Lithuanian Jews in the major cities. Source: WP Hebrew - Lithuanian Jews Holocaust according to Jager's detailed lists
- 6 August 1941 - Bialistok Ghetto liquidation and uprising. ?? killed source ??
- 2 September 1941 - Vilna Ghetto "provokation", Germans murder 3700 Jews while supposedly being moved out of their homes.
- 6 September 1941 - Vilna Ghetto 38,000 remaining Jews divided to two Ghettos: 29,000 in "work capable" ghetto, and 11,000 in Ghetto-2 for everyone else.
- 15 October 1941 - Vienna Jews expulsion to Lodz Ghetto begins, also to Mauthausen outside Linz
- ? October 1941 - Radin Jews sent to Ghetto
- 6 December 1941 - Russian Counteroffensive begins
- 7 December 1941 - Pearl Harbor attack. Japan against US
- 8 December 1941 - US declares war on Japan.
- 8 December 1941 - Japan invades SE Asia: Philipines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Singapore.
- By 31 December 1941 -Vilna Ghetto Punar Killings
- 11,000 members of the small Ghetto were killed in Punar.
- 9,000 members of the large Ghetto were killed in Punar
- 12,000 are allowed to remain. In fact there are about 20,000 left
- ? ? - Train transport of 1000 Jews from Psemizl Ghetto פשמישל to Janow murdered. Source: WP: Dubeck according to Soviet findings during war after murders and torture.
- 3 March 1942 פורים תש"ב Purim
- 3 March 1942 - Rava Ruska Ghetto transport 1000 Elderly and sick Jews sent to Belzetz. Action photographed by the German unit.
- 13 April 1942 - Anton Schmidt killed by Germans in Vilnius, Lithuania. Schmidt an Austrian German soldier saved 250 Jews after seeing the killings in Punar.
- ? May 1942 - Radun ראדון Jewish killing-hole diggers rebel. 17 escape, the rest murdered. 1000 Jews murdered in following Aktzia. Remaining Jews sent to Ghetto שצוצין
- 1 June 1942 - Eichmann order to deport elderly Austrian Jews to Theresienstadt Austrian Jews fate
- 15 July 1942 - ראש חודש אב תש"ב First transports of 22000 Jews from Ghetto Psemizl פשמישל to Auschwitz. Most were murdered there.
- 21 July 1942 ערב ט' באב תש"ב - Warsaw liquidation stage I - German SD arrest 11 of the heads of the Judenrat along with dozens of Judenrat workers, sent to Warsaw jail, while indiscriminate German shooting in the Ghetto streets kills several Jews.
- 22 July 1942 תשעה באב, תש"ב - Warsaw Ghetto, Remaining 13 members of Judenrat required to order 6000 Jews a day to deportation to "the east", in actuality: Treblinka death camp.
- 23 July 1942 - Warsaw Ghetto transport orders raised to 7000 a day
- 25 July 1942 - Warsaw Ghetto transport orders raised to 10,000 a day. Adam Cherniakow knowing that the Jews are being sent to their death, committed suicide. Germans give remaining Judenrat exemption permits for family members of 2nd degree, which successfully counters rebellion.
- Daily transports of 10,000 Jews leave the Warsaw ghetto
- 19 August 1942 - Warsaw Ghetto transports temporarily stop, after 240,000 Jews transported.
- 3 September 1942 Friday - Warsaw Ghetto "shops" surrounded and transports renewed, this time regardless of "Necessary Job" papers.
- 4 September 1942 מוצא"ש - Warsaw Ghetto All Ghetto residents ordered into an enclosed area, with food for two days. Held there for a week, counted and documented meticulously a total of 50,000 extra people, most of them Jews were sent on transports to the east. 2,648 Jews were shot for "creating disorder" and 60 committed suicide.
- 11 September 1942 - Rosh Hashana ראש השנה תש"ג
- 17 September 1942 - Sokal סוקאל killings: 160 Jews killed in streets during round-up. 2000 Jews sent to Belzetz death camp.
- 21 September 1942 יום כיפור תש"ג - Last transport of first Aktzia. 200 Jewish police and officials rounded up and added to the train to Treblinka.
- German records read of 300,000 Jews including women children and the elderly, sent to Treblinka. Only some 60,000 Jews remained in the Ghetto.
- 27 September 1942 ב חוהמ סוכות תשג - Kozniece Ghetto sent to death in Treblinka Source: JewishGen Kozniece
- 15 October 1942 - Sokal סוקאל remaining Jews put into small Ghetto. Death rate 20 a day due to hunger and illness.
- 23-24 October 1942 - British victory at El Alamein, Libya
- 28 October 1942 - Sokal סוקאל last transport. 2500 Jews sent to Belzetz. Judenrat chief murdered in front of the gathered Jews along with anyone trying to escape. 1500 of the remaining Jews died of hunger and disease during the following winter, and the last Jews were murdered on the 27'th of May 1943 (see listing) Source He-WP:סוקאל
- 8 November 1942 - Algiers and Tunisia in hands of US and UK soldiers
- 11 November 1942 - Germany occupies southern France. End of Vichy rule
- 23 November 1942 - Russian Battle of Stalingrad begins
- 9 January 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto, Himmler's visit
- 18 January 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto first resistance.
- Germans in an attempt to re-establish the transports ordered all Jews to stand in front of their homes with identification papers in hand. The Jews did not comply.
- A group of armed Eyal resistance fighters joined 1000 Jews marched to the transport platform and attacked the German guard. All were killed except Eyal chief, Mordecai Anilewich who survived.
- An Eyal team lead by Isaac Zuckerman succeeded in killing and repelling a German platoon.
- Aktzia continues despite this, and 5000-6000 Jews are deported to Treblinka, including the Jewish police.
- 22 January 1943 - Transport 'Akzia' ends when Jews refuse to show up.
- 30 January 1943 - German 6th Army surrender at Stalingrad
- 19 April 1943 ערב פסח תש"ג - Warsaw Ghetto uprise. German tank lit on fire and German infintry killed.
- 22 April 1943 ב חוה"מ פסח - German soldiers burn down building by building
- Until 16 May, 6000 Jews were burnt or suffocated in and under the burnt buildings
- 24 April 1943 שבת חוה"מ פסח תש"ג - Rabbi Menachem Zomba shot and killed in burning house. His grave was found after the war and he was exhumated to Israel and buried there.
- 8 May 1943 ג' איר תש"ג - Eyal main bunker falls. Mordecai Anilewitz killed.
- 16 May 1943 י"א איר תש"ג - German General Jurgen Stroup claims "no more Jewish quarter in Warsaw".
- According to Stroup's lists: 65,065 Jews were caught. 13,292 Jews were killed.
- The remaining Jews were sent to Treblinka.
- 27 May 1943 כ"ב איר תש"ג - Sokal סקוהל Ghetto liquidation. Jews murdered in streets. The rest were marched to the nearby forest and shot into death-wells. 30 Jews from this town survived the war.
- 5 July 1943 - German attack at Kursk
- 10 July 1943 - US captures Sicily
- 12 July 1943 - Russian successful counter attack at Kursk
- 16 July 1943 - Vilna Ghetto Isaac Witenberg Chief of Jewish resistance forced by Jews to surrender himself. He was tortured and murdered.
- 25 July 1943 - Mussolini deposed by fascists
- ? August 1943 - Regular "transports" of Jews from Vilna Ghetto.
- 1 September 1943 - Vilna Ghetto liquidation starts.
- Most Jews not willing to join the resistance.
- 7000 Jews sent to camps in Estonia ?? (or was that the pretence?)
- 150 Jewish resistence fighters leave through sewers and join the partisans.
- 8 September 1943 - German takeover of Rome and northern Italy, reimposing Mussolini
- 23 September 1943 - Vilna Ghetto liquified. Remaining Jews had been killed in Punar or sent off to death camps.
- Fall 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto remains:
- Greek forced labor Jews sent to Warsaw for brick retrieval.
- Discover Jews still living in bunkers. They are either killed on the spot or sent to Treblinka.
- Most members of the first forced labor group die of starvation and are replaced with others.
- Later many die of Typhoid fever and the remaining are marched to Dachau (see In January 1944)
- 6 November 1943 - Kiev taken by Soviets.
- 1 January 1944 - Warsaw Ghetto site. Jewish Greek brick retrieving labor group members die of Typhoid fever and the remaining Jews are marched to Dachau
- 19 March 1944 - Hungary taken over by Germany
- ? March 1944 - Buczacz בוצ'אץ - released by Soviets, 800-1000 Jews come out of hiding and are killed when desperate Germans retake the city.
- 3 May 1944 י' איר תש"ד - Isaac Kazanelson, Jewish historian murdered at Auschwitz
- 4 June 1944 - Rome freed by Allies
- 6 June 1944 - Normandy landing
- 22 June 1944 - Soviet campaign in Poland
- 12 July 1944 - Vilnius liberated by Soviets.
- Several hundred Jews survived
- 250 Jews survived in Karl Palge's forced labor camp.
- 27 July 1944 - Buczacz liberated by Soviets. 65 Jews of the town and surroundings' 16,000 survived the war.
- 1 August 1944 - Soviets near Warsaw, Polish Home Army begin rebellion
- 5 October 1944 - Polish Home Army surrenders to Germany
- 23 August 1944 - Romania switches sides to Allies, Soviet troops on Prut River
- 25 August 1944 - Paris freed (by French forces with Allies)
- August-October 1944 - Slovak resistance. Ends when Germans kill Banska Bystrica and capture headquarters
- date?? December 1944 - France, southern Holand, most of Belgium free.
- 15 October 1944 - Hungary taken over by fascist Arrow Cross.
- 20 October 1944 - Pilipines, landing of US forces
- 16 December 1944 - Battle of the Bulge, last and failed western German counteroffensive
- ? Returning Dubeck Jew, Shia Bessan, murdered.
- 12 January 1945 - Krakow and Warsaw taken by Soviets
- 7 March 1945 - US troops cross the Rhine